"exceptions for cases of statements of truth, subjects of public debate and religious doctrine"
So you can say "God hates fags", because your religion teaches that being gay is an unforgivable sin, and punishable by an eternity in hell. Then you're exempted by the law, right? :V Even though that's possibly inciting violence? Religion can pretty much cover everything horrible that you have to say.
I am torn because on one hand I do think laws against hate speech are a good idea, but they're still too vague for me to be comfortable with, and I think the punishments that you said are far too harsh (2-14 years? you'd get that in the US for manslaughter) Something like fines would be better but prison seems VERY extreme. On the other hand I really do value the freedom of speech and religion, I think the First Amendment is the most important part of the Constitution and an example of what makes America great. Anything that limits our freedom in that aspect, while with good intentions, I'm very uncomfortable with. I see it as an inevitable descent into censorship. It sounds stupid but you really wouldn't understand unless you were an American yourself.